Invasion of Russia

June 22, 1941 - Hitler invades Russia and the slaughter of Jews begins.

Eva Galler: Humiliation in Market Place

October 1941 - The Nazis and Lithuanian collaborators transport Shep Zitler’s sister, her son, and daughter Zerna to the killing fields at Ponary Forest outside Vilna.

Shep Zitler: His Niece Zerna at Ponary

October 15, 1941 - Disguised as ‘resettlement’ for work, deportation begins of German, Austrian, and Czech Jews to the “east.”

December 1941 - Mark Skorecki slips into Warsaw Ghetto and is reunited with his wife Ruth and his daughters Anne and Lila.

Anne Levy: Return of Father

Lila Millen: Return of Father

December 7, 1941 – Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor

December 8, 1941 - Murder of Jews, using gas vans, begins at Chelmno death camp in western Poland.